Well, that’s a fascinating question I wouldn’t normally expect to be asked. But it comes up all the time, often on social media, for example. The discussion is about the atom of hydrogen and whether hydrogen is a diatomic molecule or not.
The answer depends on what you mean by “hydrogen.” If you mean the non-fluorine isotope (1H) of hydrogen – H2 – then yes, it is a diatomic molecule; if you mean the fluorine-containing isotope (1F) of hydrogen, then yes, it isn’t (which suggests that there can only be one kind of hydrogen atom). So either way, unless someone wants to call us “Hydrogen Hypothesisists,” we will have to agree with them that we don’t believe in the existence of diatomic molecules!
The reason why this has become such an interesting question is that we do believe in atoms. We believe in atoms containing at least two proton types – H+ and Na+. We don’t believe in atoms containing three types of protons, four types of neutrons, or five different types of electrons because there are no such atoms in nature.
The fact that a single atom contains many different kinds of protons and neutrons tells us something significant: there are no such things as diamagnetic molecules – molecules that have magnetic moments similar to their electric moment – because they cannot exist in nature. This doesn’t explain why nobody else believes in diamagnetic molecules either, but our belief does make some sense if you know that electrons have no magnetic moment at all! And so, for example…
2. What is a diatomic molecule?
H2O is a molecule that contains two protons and two neutrons. It’s a diatomic molecule, which means it’s composed of two atoms of the same element.
The most common way to remember the name of this molecule is H2O, but there are also other ways of saying that its name is water or just plain H2O.
Most people will agree that water has something to do with it — its molecular formula is H2O, and all but one element (hydrogen) are in the water — and that’s what makes it “water.” But you might not know why this chemical reaction happens:
Remember that each proton and neutron have an electric charge of +1/2 unit (so they weigh the same as an electron) and repel each other. So when you add a proton to a neutron (a nucleus), you get an electron released (the left-hand side of the equation). The right-hand side represents the opposite reaction: when you add a neutron to an electron, you get an electron released (the right-hand side). And since we have a negative number for electrons, we can also use negative numbers for protons—nuclei make more protons than electrons.
A hydrogen atom can release one proton from another by bouncing off it—but only if there are no other protons nearby. So if you have one atom nearby, then it releases its proton from another atom—and so on.
But why does it matter? Think about this for a moment: If the only thing holding your molecule together was gravity, then what would happen if you set your bottle on fire? The molecules in your body would break apart because gravity would be taking its toll on them. You wouldn’t feel any pain or other symptoms because gravity had pulled them apart long ago…but they were still attached…and now they’re floating away! Imagine how much more devastating it would be if your molecules were still connected and some force held them together!
You could think of this as the “least action possible” situation; imagine what gravity could do if you were swimming through space! If we think about these things without overthinking physics or chemistry at all… we’ll see how far off base we are with our thinking about these basic physical things! If anyone ever tells us to “think in terms of physics and chemistry.
3. The structure of a diatomic molecule
It is the structure of a molecule that is made of two atoms. Every chemical element and every molecule are “made” of two atoms. However, “made” does not mean they are the same; this would be untrue for many molecules, such as carbon dioxide. For example, carbon dioxide has one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, whereas water is made up of two oxygen atoms and three hydrogen atoms.
Therefore, it makes sense to think of H2O as being made up of 2 molecules: O2 + 2H+ (or H2O)
The question we’re asking here is more about the structure than the identity of these molecules: why do we think that H2O is a diatomic molecule? We think this way because of our experience with carbon dioxide and water. In each case, the molecules are made up of two atoms. However, there seems to be some difference between these molecules which makes them seem different:
Water has one oxygen atom and three hydrogen atoms in its molecule (indeed, it’s one hydrogen atom on each side). Carbon dioxide has one oxygen atom and three hydrogen atoms on both sides (indeed, it’s one oxygen atom on each side). So why do we think that H2O is a diatomic molecule? And if so, why do we think it’s different from all other molecules in this respect?
Why does something have 2 electrons in its outer shell? Why does something have 6 electrons in its outer shell? Why does something have 3 electrons in its outer shell? What do you call “two electrons with 0 charges per electron” or “3 space charges with 0 charge per electron”? Why do some molecules exist with more than six valence electrons per shell while others exist with less than six valence electrons per shell?
What can you say about electrons that don’t have any charge within their outer shells? What can you say when an electron doesn’t belong to any particular shell but only to a single type of orbital in the outermost shell?? There are many interesting questions like these when talking about chemistry. Another way to look at them would be Why don’t stars burn out.
4. The properties of a diatomic molecule
If a molecule can exist in two different states, it is a diatomic molecule. There are several diatomic molecules, including hydride, nitride, and sulfide.
Hydrides are ionic compounds that contain hydrogen and an electronegative (electrolyte) atom or atoms. Nitrides are ionic compounds that contain nitrogen and an electronegative (electrolyte) atom or atoms. Sulfides are ionic compounds that contain sulfur and an electronegative (electrolyte) atom or atoms.
Hydrocarbons have the most common diatomic structure, with the carbon atom bound between two other elements (here, oxygen is shown). They include: methane, ethane, and propane; n-butane is more commonly called butane; pentane has five carbons instead of four; hexane has six carbons instead of five; heptane has seven carbons instead of six; octane has eight carbons instead of seven; non-bonded hydrocarbons with more than eight carbon atoms exist too.
Hydrocarbons can be saturated or unsaturated. The most common hydrocarbon bond involves three electrons: the C=O bond in methane vs. the C=C bond in propane vs. the C=C bond in pentane vs. the C=N bond in ammonia.
Aromatics are diatomic molecules with aromatized hydrocarbon bonds and ketones and carboxylic acids. Aromatics include: benzene, xanthene, and anthracene; olefins come in the cis form, so there is a single bond between each pair of carbon atoms (see above). Carbocyclic aromatic ring systems can be found as ring systems formed by joining two rings together (e.g., octanediyl).
The rings of these ring systems can contain one more carbon than the number of rings typically found in a diatomic molecule (e.g., 2-methylhexanamine). The aromatic ring system used to make some alcohols contains more than eleven carbon atoms – these alcohols may resemble typical diatomics but have a different chemical structure because they combine rings from different families into one compound structure .
5. Hydrogen as a diatomic molecule
If you’re reading this post, you don’t know which way is up. But it doesn’t matter that much. As long as you don’t get hung up on the answer and keep asking questions until you find out – in the same way, that a popular TV personality will keep asking questions to anyone who will pose one – you’ll eventually learn who is right who is wrong.
The truth should always be at least as interesting as the lies, but there is more to it than that. While we can usually get out by saying something might be true – “That would be nice, but what if it wasn’t?” – if we are trying to convince someone of a truth they are already convinced of (say, “I think my car runs on hydrogen instead of gasoline!”), then we have a problem because they already believe it runs on gasoline. They might not say so, but they will undoubtedly feel like they are being lied to.
So make sure your arguments are based on facts and data rather than assumptions about what people think about your product or project:
• What does the data say? (Is there any reason to doubt it? Does it help explain what people think?)
• What does the data say about how people use your product or service? (Does this fit with other things people have learned from using your product or service?)
• What do clients like and loathe about your development or service? (Will this help them decide if they like or dislike your product?)
The above should get you much further than any factsheets or press releases could ever manage; when done well, it will generate more great ROI than most companies can hope to achieve through traditional marketing channels.